What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

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Re: What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Unread postby Tariq ahmed » Thu Apr 30, 2015 7:36 am

cms#14357
section A
semester 2

Memory:
Computer Memory is a storage area, which can be temporary or permanent. It contains all the data and information that is needed by a CPU.

Memory is the same basically switches such as transistors. Switches can be present in two states ON or OFF or HIGH or LOW, there is no third state. In ON state the switches represented by '1' and in OFF state switches are represented by a '0'. Similarly transistor can represent any of the two states.

there are two different types of memory.
• Random Access Memory(RAM)
• Read Only Memory(ROM)
RAM:
RAM is basically a volatile kind of memory.
It stores input data, program functions, intermediate results and other information’s temporarily. The Data in the RAM is easily accessible than any other type of memory.
It can be read or write. it’s data will be lost if the system is turned off.
In some cases it’s data can be retrieved from data storage.
Different types of RAM:
• DRAM
DRAM is the most used form of a Ram
• SRAM:
SRAM needs power to keep its data, but doesn't need the computer to be active.
Some SRAM chips are battery-backed. This type has a built-in battery to make sure no data is lost if the computer is turned off. Some computers have a little SRAM and mostly DRAM.
Comparison between DRAM and SRAM:
SRAM is able to store data as long as power/energy is used. There is no need to refresh it. SRAM can also be faster than DRAM. But SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM.
ROM:
ROM is basically a non-volatile kind of memory.It permanently stores data. A hard disc is basically act as a ROM.
There are different types of ROM:
• Masked ROM:
This kind is written once, at the factory. It cannot be changed at all later on. Its main benefit is that it is very cheap to make.
• PROM:
It Can be programmed once.It Comes un programmed from the factory. Programming consists in removing connections. Has been replaced by EPROMs
• EPROM:
This kind can be erased with UV light.
• EEPROM:
This kind of RAM can be erased using an electrical signal.
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What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Unread postby cms14634 sectionA » Thu Apr 30, 2015 7:56 am

Muhammad Noman
CMS # 14634
Semester 2 section A
Electrical Engineering

What is Memory:-
Computer's memory is basically a storage place which can be either temporary or permanent. All the data needed by the CPU is stored in the memory.
Memory is basically a concept of ON and OFF state which can also be called as switch. It is also called as LOW or HIGH. There are only these two states for a memory. ON means '1' while OFF means '0'.

TYPES:-
The are two types of memory
1) RAM(Random Acces Memory)
It stores input data, intermediate results and other information’s temporarily and performs functions. The Data in the RAM is easily accessible.
It can read or write. It is volatile.
2) ROM(Read-Only Memory)
It permanently stores data. It is non-volatile. Its further types are:-
a)PROM:
It Can be programmed once.It Comes un programmed from the factory. Programming consists in removing connections. Has been replaced by EPROMs
b)EPROM:
This kind can be erased with UV light.
c)EEPROM:
This kind of RAM can be erased using an electrical signal.
d)Masked ROM:
This kind is written once, at the factory. It cannot be changed at all later on. Its main benefit is that it is very cheap to make.
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Re: What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Unread postby 14652 » Thu Apr 30, 2015 8:07 am

Memory
memory is like a scratch pad ,when you launch any program it is loaded into and run from the memory.
There are two types of memory:
RAM
ROM

RAM
RAM is known as random access memory.ram is volatile which means that it needs a constant supply of power,when power is switched off it lost all its contents.we can read and write data over this therefore it is also known as read/write memory. The main factor which affects the speed and power of computer.

ROM
ROM is called as read only memory.it does not need constant supply of power.it is non volatile memory.it permanently stores the instructions which computer needs to operate.it is cheaper as compared to RAM.it stores data in kb,mb,gb and tb
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Re: What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Unread postby Talha jalil 555 » Thu Apr 30, 2015 8:18 am

talha jalil awan
cms 14355


In computing, memory refers to the devices used to store information for use in a computer. The term primary memory is used for storage systems which function at high-speed (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from secondary memory, which provides program and data storage that is slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. If needed, primary memory can be stored in secondary memory, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.[1]

The term "memory", meaning primary memory is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary memory but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main types of semiconductor memory: volatile and non-volatile. Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (sometimes used as secondary, sometimes primary computer memory) and ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM memory (used for firmware such as boot programs). Examples of volatile memory are primary memory (typically dynamic RAM, DRAM), and fast CPU cache memory (typically static RAM, SRAM, which is fast but energy-consuming and offer lower memory capacity per area unit than DRAM).

Most semiconductor memory is organized into memory cells or bistable flip-flops, each storing one bit (0 or 1). Flash memory organization includes both one bit per memory cell and multiple bits per cell (called MLC, Multiple Level Cell). The memory cells are grouped into words of fixed word length, for example 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 bit. Each word can be accessed by a binary address of N bit, making it possible to store 2 raised by N words in the memory. This implies that processor registers normally are not considered as memory, since they only store one word and do not include an addressing mechanism.

The term storage is often used to describe secondary memory such as tape, magnetic disks and optical discs (CD-ROM and DVD-ROM).

VOLATILE MEMORY
Volatile memory is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. Most modern semiconductor volatile memory is either Static RAM (see RAM) or dynamic RAM (see DRAM). RAM retains its contents as long as the power is connected and is easy to interface to but uses six transistors per bit. Dynamic RAM is more complicated to interface to and control and needs regular refresh cycles to prevent its contents being lost. However, DRAM uses only one transistor and a capacitor per bit, allowing it to reach much higher densities and, with more bits on a memory chip, be much cheaper per bit. RAM is not worthwhile for desktop system memory, where DRAM dominates, but is used for their cache memories. RAM is commonplace in small embedded systems, which might only need tens of kilobytes or less. Forthcoming volatile memory technologies that hope to replace or compete with RAM and DRAM include Z-RAM, RAM, A-RAM and ETA RAM.
Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory (see ROM), flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disks, floppy discs and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards. Forthcoming non-volatile memory technologies include FeRAM, CBRAM, PRAM, SONOS, RRAM, Racetrack memory, NRAM and Millipede.
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Re: What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Unread postby Fazal wahid 14291 » Thu Apr 30, 2015 9:17 am

What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Memory is the basic thing which a programmer has to know about.there are two types of memories
1)RAM

AND

2)ROM


RAM: RAM or random axcess memory is the of memory which stores data for short time interval.
when computer is turned off the memory stored in ram also losses.

ROM: ROM or read only memory is the type of memory which stores data permanently and is does not losses its data when system is shut ted off
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